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Platelets play roles in both hemostasis and wound healing. Platelets contain granules that release growth factors to stimulate other cells of the body to migrate to the area of trauma, thus facilitating tissue healing. It is the growth factors contained within the platelets that are of significance for tissue healing.

These growth factors include platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2), basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Many of the growth factors found in PRP have been shown to act either individually or synergistically to enhance cellular migration and proliferation, angiogenesis, and matrix deposition to promote tendon and wound healing, aid in bone healing, and counteract the cartilage breakdown that is associated with osteoarthritis. Thus, PRP has been used to manage many different orthopedic conditions.

Studies have shown that platelets recruit, stimulate, and provide a scaffold for stem cells, supporting its use with stem cells to stimulate healing. Hence, PRP has also been used in conjunction with stem cell therapy to aid in cartilage, bone, and soft tissue healing.


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